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International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO)

Publications, Data and Links of interest to the Southern Ocean Bathymetry Community

+ Publications


IBCSO reports:

 


Antarctic Map: Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage:

In December 2016, a new Antarctic map, “Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage”, was released.  This SCAR product represented an international collaborative effort coordinated by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), working together with the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and the United States Antarctic Program (USAP)

The map covers an area of 1470000 km2 between parallels 52ºS and 63ºS and between meridians 70ºW and 50ºW, where the high resolution bathymetric data covers more than 70% of the region with a 200 m cell resolution of the sea floor topography. The data were collected over the last 25 years on more than one hundred oceanographic cruises onboard six different Antarctic research vessels.  This initiative is part of SCAR's IBCSO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean) Expert Group, which recognises the importance of regional data compilations in Antarctic areas of particular scientific interest.  The map has been published by the BAS and the IGME, with support from SCAR through the Geosciences Group.

The Drake Passage is an oceanic gateway of approximately 850 km width located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula that connects the southeastern Pacific and the southwestern Atlantic oceans and influences mantle flow, oceanographic water mass exchanges and migrations of biota. This gateway opened within the framework of the geological evolution of the Scotia Arc; a tectonic setting which developed since the early Oligocene and includes the Scotia and Sandwich plates. It is bounded to the north by the North Scotia Ridge, to the south by the South Scotia Ridge, to the west by the Shackleton Fracture Zone, and to the east by the South Sandwich Trench. The Scotia Sea contains several active and extinct spreading ridges that led to the opening of the Drake Passage. Several continental banks and oceanic basins are located in Scotia Sea, most notably in its southern part.

IBCSO Drake Geomap 2016 webThe geodynamic evolution of the region, seismic activity and tectonic data suggest a complex evolution of the Drake Passage such that the Shackleton Fracture Zone began as an oceanic ridge-to-ridge transform fault with strike-slip motion along most of its length, and subsequently became a transpressive transcurrent fault zone as it is at present. The Shackleton Fracture Zone, which occupies a central position in the Drake Passage, intersects two extinct spreading centres – the West Scotia Ridge (extinct 6.4 Ma ago) and the Phoenix-Antarctic Ridge (extinct 3 Ma ago), and is an intra-oceanic ridge which rises several hundreds to thousands of metres above the surrounding seafloor. Uplift of the Shackleton Fracture Zone in the last 8 Myr has formed a barrier for oceanic bottom currents.

The opening of the main southern oceanic gateways, Drake Passage and the Tasmanian gateway, separating South America and Australia from Antarctica respectively, permitted the present pattern of global ocean circulation to be established. This allowed extensive exchange of water between the main ocean basins and led to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which contributed to the thermal isolation of Antarctica, was partially responsible for global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and played an important role in middle Miocene cooling.

Reference of the map:

Bohoyo, F., Larter, R.D., Galindo-Zaldívar, J., Leat, P.T., Maldonado, A., Tate, A.J., Gowland, E.J.M., Arndt, J.E., Dorschel, B., Kim, Y.D., Hong, J.K., Flexas, M., López-Martínez, J., Maestro, A., Bermudez, O., Nitsche, F.O., Livermore, R.A., Riley, T.R. 2016. Bathymetry and Geological Setting of the Drake Passage (1:1 500 000). BAS GEOMAP 2 Series, Sheet 7, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK.


Other Publications:

+ Data


Digital Bathymetric Model (DBM)

The digital bathymetric model (DBM) of IBCSO Version 2.0 has a 500m x 500m resolution based on a polar stereographic projection (EPSG: 9354) for the area south of 50° S. It is publicly available together with a digital chart for printing.

The projection used for IBCSO v2 was registered in April 2020 under EPSG: 9354.
A .prj file containing the projection string can be downloaded from the PANGAEA website.

If you are using any data from IBCSO v2, please use the following citation:

Dorschel, Boris; Hehemann, Laura; Viquerat, Sacha; Warnke, Fynn; Dreutter, Simon; Schulze Tenberge, Yvonne; Accetella, Daniela; An, Lu; Barrios, Felipe; Bazhenova, Evgenia A; Black, Jenny; Bohoyo, Fernando; Davey, Craig; de Santis, Laura; Escutia Dotti, Carlota; Fremand, Alice C; Fretwell, Peter T; Gales, Jenny A; Gao, Jinyao; Gasperini, Luca; Greenbaum, Jamin S; Henderson Jencks, Jennifer; Hogan, Kelly A; Hong, Jong Kuk; Jakobsson, Martin; Jensen, Laura; Kool, Johnathan; Larin, Sergey; Larter, Robert D; Leitchenkov, German L; Loubrieu, Benoit; Mackay, Kevin; Mayer, Larry; Millan, Romain; Morlighem, Mathieu; Navidad, Francisco; Nitsche, Frank-Oliver; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Pertuisot, Cécile; Post, Alexandra L; Pritchard, Hamish D; Purser, Autun; Rebesco, Michele; Rignot, Eric; Roberts, Jason L; Rovere, Marzia; Ryzhov, Ivan; Sauli, Chiara; Schmitt, Thierry; Silvano, Alessandro; Smith, Jodie E; Snaith, Helen; Tate, Alex; Tinto, Kirsty; Vandenbossche, Philippe; Weatherall, Pauline; Wintersteller, Paul; Yang, Chunguo; Zhang, Tao; Arndt, Jan Erik (2022): The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean Version 2 (IBCSO v2). PANGAEA, doi: 10.1594/PANGAEA.937574

The accompanying publication was published in Nature Scientific data:

Dorschel B, Hehemann L, Viquerat S, Warnke F, Dreutter S, Schulze Tenberge Y, Accetella D, An L, Barrios F, Bazhenova EA, Black J, Bohoyo F, Davey C, de Santis L, Escutia Dotti, Carlota Fremand AC, Fretwell PT, Gales JA, Gao J, Gasperini L, Greenbaum JS, Henderson Jencks J, Hogan KA, Hong JK, Jakobsson M, Jensen L, Kool J, Larin S, Larter RD, Leitchenkov GL, Loubrieu B, Mackay K, Mayer L, Millan R, Morlighem M, Navidad F, Nitsche FO, Purser A, Rebesco M, Rignot E, Roberts JL, Rovere M, Ryzhov I, Sauli C, Schmitt T, Silvano A, Smith JE, Snaith H, Tate AJ, Tinto K, Vandenbossche P, Weatherall P, Winterstellar P, Yang C, Zhang T, Arndt JE (2022): International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean Version 2 (IBCSO v2). doi: 10.1038/s41597-022-01366-7


Database

The IBCSO database currently consists of more than 25 billion data points contributed by 88 institutions from 22 countries. In total, 498 multibeam and 950 singlebeam echo sounding data were building the core data of our database. Digitized soundings from nautical charts, LIDAR, gravity data and regional bathymetric compilations are rounding off the database. A list of datasets used for the compilation of IBCSO v2 can be downloaded here:


Coverage

An overview of included data sources and the spatial distribution can be seen in the source identification map (above right).

The IBCSO group aims to identify data gaps and areas that suffer from low data quality, such as outdated singlebeam data. The IBCSO TID grid can be used to identify areas with high quality multibeam. For an easier access to this information, we also provide a GIS-ready geopackage showing the outline of multibeam and singlebeam surveys contained in IBCSO v2 here:


Data Contributions

If you are holding bathymetric data that is not yet included in the IBCSO database, we encourage you to contribute your data to improve the IBCSO digital bathymetric model for the benefit of all. Contributed data will be acknowledged and will only be used to generate the IBCSO digital bathymetric model. To contribute data, please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..


Cartography data

To enable users to visualize their own data on a map with the IBCSO look and feel, we are offering the base data of the IBCSO printable chart as a georeferenced image. The 'Background' maps contain RGB rasterfiles in GeoTiff format, which is compatible with most GIS programs.

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Institutions and Data Centres


Programs and Groups