GNSS Research and Application for Polar Environment (GRAPE) Expert Group

Terms of Reference

The main objectives of GRAPE are to:

  • Create and maintain distributed networks of specialized GPS/GNSS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors particularly at high latitudes;
  • Identify and quantify mechanisms that cause scintillation and control interhemispheric differences, asymmetries and commonalities in scintillation occurrence and intensity as a result of the geospace environment conditions;
  • Develop ionospheric scintillation climatology, tracking and mitigation models to improve prediction capabilities of space weather;
  • Retrieve tropospheric PWV for input to weather forecast models and to develop regional PWV climatology for atmospheric sensing in remote areas.